# What is GATE ?

Gate stands for Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering.Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an acronym for Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering. It is an annual entrance exam for entry to various postgraduate science and technology systems in Schools. The exam is jointly administered and supervised by the Indian Institute of Science and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) on behalf of the Ministry of Human Resource Development’s Department of Higher Education.

The GATE Score is also very useful in finding the prestigious jobs with attractive salary packages in many Public Secor Undertakings(PSUs) recruitments. The PSUs who uses GATE score for providing jobs includes BHELBARCIOCLNTPCHPCLPower GridNHPC, etc.

• ### Electronics and Communications Engineering Syllabus GATE 2021 (ECE) This GATE syllabus section covers problems of verbal capacity and numerical capacity.

1. Verbal ability: English syntax, completion of sentence, verbal analogies, word categories, directions, criticism and verbal deduction
2. Numerical Ability:
• Quantitative aptitude:    number system,Ratio and proportion,percentage,profit and loss,Simple Interest and Compound Interest,Average and Alligation ,Time and work,Speed ,Distance and Time,Geometry and Mensuration.
• Analytical  Reasoning:Ranking test,Dices and cubes,Directional Sense,Blood Relationship,Seating Arrangement,Coding and Decoding ,Puzzles,Clocks,Calendars,.
• Critical Reasoning: Basic Concepts of Syllogism,Critical Reasoning,.
• Modern Maths: Sequence and series,Polynomials,Set Theory,Permutation and Combination.
• Data interpretation.
• Section 1: Engineering Mathematics.

Linear algebra: space-specific vector, basis, linear dependency and independence, algebra matrix, own values and vectors of eigen, rank, linear equations solution – reality and singularity.

Calculus: mean value theorems, integral calculus theorems, estimation of define and insufficient integrals and partial derivatives, maximal and minimum values, multiple integrals, integral line, surface and volume components, sequence Taylor.

Differential Equations: first-order equations (linear and non-linear), higher-order linear differential equations, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, methods of solution using parameter variance,Original and boundary value questions, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, vector separable process

•  Vector Analysis :   vectors inspace and plane, vector operations, gradient, divergence  and  curl, Gauss’s, Green’s and Stoke’s theorems.
• Complex Analysis: Analytical functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula; Taylor’s and Laurent’s sequence, residue theorem.
• Numerical Approaches: solution of non-linear problems, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criterion.
• Probability and Statistics: mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution function-bin
• Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

Nodal and mesh network analysis; network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, full power transfer; WyeDelta transformation; phasor-based steady-state sinusoidal analysis; Easy linear circuits are subjected to time domain analysis. The Laplace transform is used to solve network equations. RLC circuits’ frequency domain analysis; Parameters of a linear two-port network: driving point and transition functions; For networks, state equations are used.

Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem, and applications for continuous-time signals Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, discrete-time signal interpolation; LTIs

##### Section : 3 Electronic  Devices And  Circuits :

Energy bands in silicon (intrinsic and extrinsic); Diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity are instances of carrier transport. Carrier generation and recombination; Equations of Poisson and Continuity; LED, picture, P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET

Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, and ionized particles

Photolithography, implantation, and the twin-tub CMOS process are all used in this process.

Section 4: Analog Circuits

Diodes, BJTs, and MOSFETs provide small signal equivalent circuits. Clipping, clamping, and rectifiers are examples of simple diode circuits. Biasing, bias stabilisation, mid-frequency small signal analysis, and frequency response of single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers; multi-stage, differential, input, power, and operational BJT and MOSFET amplifiers; Circuits with simple op-amps; Filters that are active; Function generators, wave-shaping loops, and 555 timers; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op-amp configurations; Circuits that measure voltage; Ripple reduction and control of electricity supplies.

Section 5: Digital Circuits

Binary, decimal, and floating-point numbers are examples of number representations. Boolean algebra, function minimization using Boolean identities and the Karnaugh diagram, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, and decoders are all examples of combinatorial circuits.
Latches and flip-flops, counters, shift-registers, finite state machines, propagation delay, setup and hold time, critical path delay are all examples of sequential circuits.
ADCs, DACs, and sample and retain loops are examples of data converters.
ROM, SRAM, and DRAM are examples of semiconductor memories.

Computer organization: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU, data-path and control unit, instruction pipelining.

Section 6: Control Systems

Components of the basic control system; The theory of feedback; the function of transfer; the image of a block diagram; Signal flow graph; LTI system transient and steady-state analysis; Answer frequency; Stability requirements Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist; Plots of the bode and root loci; Compensation for latency, advance, and lag-lead; LTI systems’ state vector model and state equation solution

Section 7: Communications

Random processes include autocorrelation and power spectral density, white noise properties, and random signal filtering using LTI systems. Amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, AM and FM spectra, super heterodyne antennas, and analogue communications circuits are also examples of analogue communications. Entropy, shared knowledge, and the channel ability theorem are all concepts in information theory.

Digital communications  :

PCM, DPCM, digital modulation systems, amplitude, phase, and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP, and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, bandwidth, SNR, and BER calculations for digital modulation Error repair fundamentals, Ham

Section 8: Electromagnetics

Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their understanding, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation; Reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through different media, and skin depth are all properties of plane waves.

Transmission lines :

Equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transition, Sparameters, Smith chart, transmission lines

Waveguides:

Modes, boundary states, cut-off frequencies, and dispersion relations in waveguides; Antenna forms, radiation patterns, gain and directivity, return loss, and antenna arrays are all topics covered by antennas. Radar fundamentals; The transmission of light in optical fibres.

### Analysis and Weightage of GATE (ECE) : From above analysis we can conclude the subjects that carry much weightage but we have to thoughtfully concentrate on the weightage area as communication carries more weightage than any of the subjects but its syllabus is very vast and hard though . So we have to wisely choose the topics to start our gate preparation.

Cutoff marks of GATE(ECE) :

year                          General                OBC(NCL)                        ST/SC/PWD

2021                          25                        22.5                                      16.6

2020                         28.8                       25.9                                    19.2

2019                          26.7                       24                                       17.8

2018                           25.00                   22.50                                 16.60

2017                          25                          22.5                                   16.60

2016                          25                         22.5                                   16.67

Easy and Scoring topics for gate ece :

• Maths         13
• Aptitude     15
• Digital Electronics   8
• Network Theory      8
• Control System     8
• Signal System       8

For 65+ marks  you have to complete:

• EDC
• Analog Electronics
• communication
• EMFT

List of PSUs for ECE Recruitment through GATE:

1. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL)

2. Airports Authority of India (AAI)

3. NLC India Limited (NLC)

4. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL)

5. National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

6. Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL)

7. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL)

8. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)

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