Just like human beings robots also have sensors to know what is going around them or in environment. Robotic sensors are used to determine a robot’s health and surroundings. To allow acceptable actions, these signals are transferred to a controller.
Types of sensors:
There are various types of sensors to choose from, and the characteristics of sensors are used to decide the type of sensor that should be used for a specific application.
A light sensor is a transducer that detects light and generates a voltage difference equal to the strength of light falling on it. Photovoltaic cells and photo resistors are the two most popular light sensors used in robots. Phototransistors and phototubes are two other types of light sensors that are seldom used.
- Photo Resistor– is also known as a Light Dependent Resistor in general (LDR). It is a type of resistor that is used to detect light is inversely proportional to the amount of light that falls on it. The resistance of a photo resistor changes as the light intensity changes.
- Photovoltaic cells– transform solar radiation into electrical energy. If we’re building a solar robot, we’ll need it. Photovoltaic cells are an energy source on their own, but when combined with capacitors and transistors, they can be used to create a sensor.
This sensor (usually a microphone) senses sound and returns a voltage proportional to the sound frequency, as the name implies. It is possible to programme a simple robot to move based on the sounds it hears. Consider a robot that claps one time right and two times left. For speech and voice recognition, complex robots may use the same microphone.
Without making physical contact, a proximity sensor may detect the presence of a nearby object. A proximity sensor has a straightforward operation. In a proximity sensor, the transmitter sends out electromagnetic radiation, while the receiver absorbs it and scans for interruptions. As a result, the amount of light received by the receiver from the environment can be used to detect the presence of a nearby object.
What if your robot has to operate in a desert and send the temperature there? The use of a temperature sensor is an easy solution. Temperature sensor ICs are tiny ICs that have a voltage difference when the temperature changes. The LM34, LM35, TMP35, TMP36, and TMP37 are some of the most commonly used temperature sensor ICs.
Pressure sensor monitors pressure, as the name means. Due to their sensitivity to touch, force, and pressure, tactile pressure sensors are useful in robotics. This is what you’ll want to use if you’re designing a robot hand and need to know how much grip and strength is needed to hold an object.